ASP.NET Performance Optimization

The Performance of an application from the perspective of the client is very important and if it is degraded from too many round trips, too many resources, too many ajax or server calls, it gives the end user no option other than leaving your useful resource. So to end this problem you must have an eye on ways to boost your application performance by using performance boosters.

Performance of an application is the most important aspect which you need to monitor every day to provide uninterrupted services to your favorite clients and the better approaches your system uses the better results you will get. I will write the series of Optimization and Performance Techniques for SQL, jQuery, Ajax, JavaScript, C#, query optimization, and Website Optimization in upcoming articles but for now I am stating ASP.NET Performance Metrics.

But wait, what are the ways that you can judge how you want optimization of your web / application?

Below is the list of Optimization and performance Metrics that you want to acknowledge.

  1. Speed
  2. Use Logs
  3. Proper Exception Handling
  4. View State
  5. Proper Use of Caching
  6. Avoid Serve Side Validation
  7. Minify and Compress JS, CSS Resources
  8. Session Management
  9. Paging for Large Result set
  10. Avoid Un-necessary RoundTrips to Server
  11. Pages Must be Batch Compiled
  12. Partition Application Logically
  13. HTTP Compression
  14. Resource Management
  15. String Handling

We Can Discuss Each one in detail. So let’s start.


Speed of your application is the most important factor and you need to keep an eye on this factor. There are many factors involved to boost speed of your application:

Reduce Page Size:

  • By Reducing page size by means of using external css and javascript files instead of inline css and javascript.
  • The other way to reduce page size is to used only the minify version of javascript files and also beautify css and js by online tools.

To beautify Cascading Style Sheet Files Follow this Link.

To beautify Javascript files follow this Link.

To Minify Cascading Style Sheet Files Follow this Link.

To Minify JavaScript files follow this Link.

Beautify means to format the unformatted files (means with white space, comments and without indentation).

Minify means to remove white spaces, comments, non-indent text and the nice feature is to reduce space by giving your functions and variables a single name like function a(b){ if b == ‘4’){ b=’good’}}, move your code to single line of function defined.

  • Its very efficient way to separate the logic of your page as well as we did to crate an application by separating the logic of data access and business layers, so in page level you can separate it by making user controls of header, body and footer.

Reduce No of Requests to Server:

The fewer number of requests served to the server the more efficient your page behavior is.

Reduce the number  of requests by reducing the number of resources, like move your inline css code of all files to single css and like wise with javscripts. The other way is to cache the non static resouces and remove unnecessary headers from requests like version number and powered by. Use CDN (Content Delivery Network) so that it downloads files from nearest available server and save the concurrent requests if other websites are using same jquery plugin files.

Use Logs

Use IIS Log to trace out issues on weekly or monthly basis of your application, and the best is that you have to watch it on adaily basis, mainly IIS Log contains information about your server , date and time span, Referral page and the original URL and lots more information and also the HTTP Status response codes through which you can understand the nature of the issue.

I have written post on HTTP Status Response code you can read it from Here

The other way you can customize what to log is by creating a database table and inserting the exception detail in this, I have done it this way in my organization and also tracking module which can search, generate report on daily basis, insert the log modules and lots more, so that you don’t need to query the table again and again to check for daily error or for reporting.

There are other best approaches to track the error, one of the best available tools is Elmah Tool, which has a config base setting through which you can track it by configuring it with email option to the responsible person.

ELMAH (Error Logging Modules and Handlers) is an open source debugging tool for ASP.NET web services. When added to a running web application on a machine, exceptions that are thrown trigger event handlers in the ELMAH tool.

You can get it from google code Link OR

You can get it from Nuget Packages Link.

Proper Exception Handling

There are many developers who cannot handle proper exception techniques as a result the final outcomes are not pretty satisfied which means they cannot understand if there is any crashing of the application. The best way is to use try….. catch block appropriately to handle the exception in a right manner. User can use (if statement) to check for open connection if not open close the connection to the database. The other way use can use the (try…. catch block) for the connection if not closed throw an exception. With try…catch it is best approach to use finally block also with try…catch and then block like this to properly dispose off the unused resources if exception occurs or not.

  1.  try
  2.  {
  3.  }
  4.  catch (Exception)
  5.  {
  6.  throw;
  7.  }
  8.  finally
  9. {
  10.  }

Exception handling is the most important technique for finding the original run time unhandled exception in application but it should be wisely and judiciously used.

View State

View state is encrypted component in webforms that maintain the state of pages. It is used to maintain the state of page in post backs, these are the hidden fields and you can check by viewing source of page. iI you are too using the view state to maintain the state behavior of data in web forms in large form it loads your page and as a result you have a performance issue.

The potential issues lies with view state; it has large page load times due to increased number of page states.

So what are the best practices to override these types of headoff.

Here are some performance paradigms that must be accounted for while using view state.

  • Use it whenever needed in a page but limited it to small size as possible.
  • Don’t use multiple forms in a single page having state management enabled.
  • Use it wisely required on page or either in control level to application level.
  • Monitor the size of view state by enabling tracing.
  • Avoid storing large objects as the size is directly proportional to the objects.

Proper Use of Caching

With the proper use of caching you can get a lot of benefits like reducing the round trips to the server, reducing the number of server resources and it renders faster than in routine normal mode. It can improve the performance manyfold by caching the data on multiple Http Requests, it can store the page partially for specified times with some expiration values. It can boost application performance by storing data in memory so that it can be accessed quickly with less time just like CPU RAM. Cache can be accessible in your single application to use in webfarm you can use the distributed cache managers like memcached to share the cache data within the web farm.

Best use of cache is as follows:

  • Use it in all layers DataAccess, Business and UI Layer and use it in a proper way can give you performance boost.
  • caching for large time for static resources or not too used resources and also adding expiration to cache also give best performance.
  • Don’t cache expensive objects in cache like connection and like other resources.
  • use Output cache for static pages with expiration time and location as per your need.
  • Use partial fragment cache to partially cache the page component.

Avoid Server Side Validation

Validating your system is an important part as you filter what you want very clearly in DB because if you have free type text input then chances are that the required data cannot be received that’s why validations are required.

Validations are of two types: Client and server side validation.

Server Side Validation are important by the perspective of securing your sensitive information like saving password and other sensitive information. This is always not required to do server side validation as it always submits request and response back to client which causes in the cost and time of the user. This type of validation occur when submit is Hit.

Best Tips is to use whenever you required to ensure that security is not bypassed otherwise it is better to check the client side validation formats like email, URL , phone number, masking and other required information which need to be correct.

Minify and Compress JS, CSS Resources

The best approach with static content files is to minify which means make them small. Just like in production environment Jqueryis also recommended to use the min.js version file for best operations with their library you need too to include the minified version of your application working javascript files as the number of requests greatly increases the page time as some time size of file doesn’t matter but it can also be reduced by using the minified files for javascript and CSS files.

In IIS there is also setting for Compressing the Static and dynamic content you can too try this to enable compression in website.

This is also the best approach to use the Cascading style sheet files in the head of the webpage while the scripts must be included in the bottom of the page for fast processing of the page.

As you all aware of that we are using bundles of javascript libraries day by day to do our work but we foget about the behavior and impact which they made to our system. To overcome this Microsoft also announced its Microsoft web Optimization framework which is also useful.

You can read more about this framework from Here.

You may refer to section 1 of this article about the speed concerns.

Session Management

Session is an important part for applications but its effects are adverse if not handled properly.

Here are some best practices to use it intelligently.

  • Do not store a bunch of data in sessions.
  • Store basic types of data not complex types likes object.
  • Use wisely the available session states like in Proc, out of process using state view and out of process using SQL Server.
  • Out of process is the best option as it application did not restart despite of any application configuration changes but it is slow as it is some server of in sql, While the other in proc is fast as it is used same memory as application and their retrieval is also fast.
  • Do not use sensitive data in session state.
  • Always use abandon () method to sign out the user with session enabled.

Paging for Large Result set

Paging on large result sets are an extremely useful approach as we restrict the result to 10 to 30 records per page to be shown and on call of next records we get more records to load it reduces the extra load server bear to fetch all the records and return it which causes increase in page load times and extra cost to your users as well as the whole page goes unresponsive for about large time. So best approach it to make your result sets as less as possible and also use of ROWCOUNT() enhances the paging a lot more.

As your client has low resources either saving the large results set also make impact on your client.

The basic backbone in paging is the use of row_number ranking function. If you can check time with all records versus no of first page records than it show a great improvement.

Avoid Un-necessary Roundtrips to Server

The best method to avoid roundtrips to the server is to ensure that no un-necessary calls sent to the server as number of requests sent to the server increases the page load time increase in the result client suffers.

So it is necessary that you must use client mechanisms to ensure the validity to get data from server as it does not result in post backs and not involve any server callbacks which result in server involvement and it trigger the request response cycle.

You can following metrics to minimize the round trips between web server and browser.

Use Server.Transfer instead of Response.Redirect for redirecting to certain path. Server.Transfer scope is in current application redirection for redirecting to other than your application use Response.Redirect.

If your data is static you can use caching for best performance. Use Output Buffering as it reduces roundtrips by loading whole page and made available to client. If you want to transfer some data and client always connected then use HttpResponse.IsClientConnected as it reduces chances of any missing change not sent to server.

Pages must be Batch Compiled

The more the assemblies grow in a process, there are more chances that process shoots out and it throws out of memory exception. To overcome this pages need to be batch compiled as when first requested is initiated to compile pages all the pages in the same directory batch compiled and it make a single assembly. The basic advantages is thatthe  max number of assemblies that try to load in the process does not load which did not compromise on server load and only single batch compile assembly loaded in the process.

You can also ensure some things while doing this like:

  • Debug property in the configuration file always set to false in the production environment as if it is set to true pages are not batch compiled
  • Pages also did not time out if certain web service of page is not responding at the desired time,
  • Make sure that different languages are not used in same directory as it reduces chances of batch compilation.

Partition Application Logically

This means logically partitioning of your application logic like business, presentation and Data access layers. This is very useful as you have control of anything happening in any one can do their respective work in logic layer. This didn’t mean that you have to write more line of code, proper code with reusability and scalability of the application is the key properties of your application overall performance.

Don’t confuse it with physical separation of logic, as it only separate the code logic.

Below are the key pros of the separate application logic.

  • The main advantage of this is that you have a choice of logic to be separately reside on servers for your easiness in a web farm environment but it increase the latency of calls.
  • The closer is you logical layers the more benefit you have for example the all logic files in bin directory.

HTTP Compression

As the name suggests that http compression means to compress the content mostly in Gzip format or deflate and send with content headers after compression applied. It provides faster transmission time between IIS and browser.

There are two types of compression supported in IIS:

Static Compression:

It compresses cache static content by specifying in the path of directory attribute. After the first request that is compressed followed by requests used the cache compress copy thus decrease the time to furnish the content and increases productivity and performance of application. You should only compress the static content which is not changes not dynamic one.

Dynamic Compression:

Unlike the static content, dynamic content often changes as a result it supports compression by not being able to add in to the cache it only compresses the content.

Resource Management

The resource management is the management of overall resource of your application as it directly related to the performance of the application. Poor resource management decreases the performance and it loads your server CPU.

Below is the list of the most useful techniques for resource management.

  • Good use of pooling
  • Proper use of the connection object.
  • Dispose of unused resources after using them
  • Handling memory leaks.
  • Remove unused variables

String Handling

String management is one of the key to manage the memory of your application.

There are many techniques which is very useful in handling strings, some of them are enlisted:

  • Use Response.Write() to fastest show output to the browser.
  • Use stringBuilder when you don’t know the number of iterations to concatenate strings.
  • Use += operator to concatenate string when you know the number of strings are limited.
  • Do not use .ToLower() while comparing string as it creates temporary string instead use the to compare two strings because it has built in check for case insensitive data by using cultureinfo class.

Visual C# Built In Code Snippets For Fast Productivity

Code snippets are ready made, which means they are really useful reusable codes which need to be used and then again used at someother  part of work.

These snippets are not really of the type which are only used by just placing a cursor and inserting it to the place you want, but some are surrounded with code snippets also in which some line of code has been selected and then surrounded with required if statement, for loop and so on.

Code Snippets have following Advantages:

  • It saves a lot of your time by saving reusable code in code snippet manager and you can later use it anywhere.
  • It increases productivity by simply inserting code in you desired location.
  • It reduces the chances of less error by re typing your line of code.
  • It helps to stream line your work as per you assigned deadline.

Code Snippet Manager:

Firstly, you can check a whole list of code snippets in code snippets manager which you can open by pressing Combination of (Ctrl + K, Ctrl + B).

You can alternatively open code snippet manager from Visual Studio Menu from Tools è Code Snippets Manager…

There is another way to open as introduced in latest versions of visual studio which is very beneficial to open the menu items in less time; it is the Quick Launch Search Box Displayed in Top Right of your Visual Studio IDE.

As you type text it gives you suggestions and suggestions to do more actions also, like it displays the most Recently used items and Nuget Package Manager search for the searched keyword.

How to Use Code Snippets:

Basically there are two types of code snippets to be used; First one is by placing cursor at location and typing some code snippet code and secondly by using surround-with code snippets.

Note: At any time if you do not want to select the desired code snippets Press ESC Button it will dissolve and does not insert the code snippet.

Cursor Based Code Snippets:

Usage of code snippets is very simple. Just place cursor at the desired location where you want to insert code snippets, type snippet code and Press TAB Button Twice to insert in the place… we will discuss full list of code snippets in this article after following this but for reference I am quoting here an example of code snippet… for example you want to add for loop, just write for and press twice to check the magic of code snippet inserting and with full syntax and with default values. It Increases your productivity and time by also reducing the risk of human errors while creating complex syntax like for loop.

You can use it from Keyboard shortcut also by pressing key combination of (Ctrl + K, Ctrl + X) and select the Visual C# Category.

But if you have to remember the snippet code you can type it.

Surround-With Code Snippets:

You can use surround with code snippets by selecting the line of code and press keyboard short cut key combination (Ctrl + K, Ctrl + S) and type the desired code snippet to wrap in the line of code.

List of Available Code Snippets:

Now we will move into the using of code snippets inside IDE.


Region directive is used to define certain region in the code which specifies certain functionality or scope of certain work. It is collapsible portion and it is useful for pages which has lengthy code written so that you can collapse the region of code and focus on your work.

The start #region must be terminated with #endregion directive otherwise it will through the exception.

#region has a scope of anywhere means you can insert it anywhere you want.


This code snippet has scope only in class as class has destructors.

As already mentioned that has scope with in class so I checked it with creating outside the scope of class, although it created as it is snippet but it will generate compile error or a namespace cannot directly contain members such as fields or methods, while the other one inside the class scope did not through any exception.


This code snippet is used to create constructor of a class. It has also scope within class otherwise it generate exception.

Type ctor and press TAB twice to insert.


This snippet will create a declaration of class. It has a scope of namespace (global), class or struct.


This is used to declare enumeration. This is used to build a list of distinct enumerators. It has a scope of inside namespace, class or struct. The default value for initial first enumerator is 0 and the successive items will follow it like 0, 1 and so on. Enums cannot contain whitespaces while declaring their names.

The approved types of enum are int, long, byte,unit,ulong,ushort,short and sbyte.


Very helpful snippet cw means Console.WriteLine() which can show current line terminator to the output stream. Its scope lies inside method, indexer, property or event accessor.

It can take string as a parameter and return to output stream. You can align string to New Line also by using Console.Out.NewLine,

  1. Console.WriteLine();


The Equals as the name defined it has behavior to check equal of two objects either they are of same type or of different type and it returns Boolean value, if matched it return true otherwise false.

Its scope lies only inside class or struct.

  1. // override object.Equals
  2. public override bool Equals(object obj)
  3. {
  4. //
  5. // See the full list of guidelines at
  6. //
  7. // and also the guidance for operator== at
  8. //
  9. //
  10. if (obj == null || GetType() != obj.GetType())
  11. {
  12. return false;
  13. }
  14. // TODO: write your implementation of Equals() here
  15. throw new NotImplementedException();
  16. return base.Equals(obj);
  17. }
  18. // override object.GetHashCode
  19. public override int GetHashCode()
  20. {
  21. // TODO: write your implementation of GetHashCode() here
  22. throw new NotImplementedException();
  23. return base.GetHashCode();
  24. }


Creates a declaration for class that derives from exception by default. Exceptions are errors which are generated by the application. Its scope is inside a namespace, class or struct.

  1. [Serializable]
  2. public class MyException : Exception
  3. {
  4. public MyException() { }
  5. public MyException(string message) : base(message) { }
  6. public MyException(string message, Exception inner) : base(message, inner) { }
  7. protected MyException(
  8. System.Runtime.Serialization.SerializationInfo info,
  9. System.Runtime.Serialization.StreamingContext context)
  10. base(info, context) { }
  11. }


for statement is most probably used to run together block of statements in a repeated fashion until you statements return false. The best possible scenario for using for loop having you know number of iterations required to get possible operation.

  1. for (int i = 0; i < length; i++)
  2. {
  3. }
foreach iterates through for each element in an array or object collection that implements IEnumerable or Generic IEnumerable Interface.
It just iterate to the collection of items but it does not for adding or removing items. you can use break and continue operation inside foreach loop as per your easness.

  1. foreach (var item in collection)
  2.         {
  3.         }


this code snippet is for decrementing values  after each iteration using for loop. Its scope is as same as for loop.
  1. for (int i = length – 1; i >= 0; i–)
  2.        {
  3.        }


it is the most important and too many used code snippet in daily work routine. due to its  simplicity its as important as you think you have to include for every block statement to check for. It has scope inside a method, indexer, property or event accessor. by default it has true value like we are checking for check box which is either checked or not so that we can evaluate the if … else condition on the base of it.

  1. if (true)
  2.         {
  3.         }


by inserting this snippet it create the interface declaration. an interface only contain the signature of methods, indexer,events pr properties. a class which implements the interface must used the members which interface has defined.  An Interface can inherit from one or more base classes. it has scope inside a class, struct or namespace (global).

  1. interface IInterface
  2. {
  3. }


it declare a scope / set of related objects. inside a namespace you can declare one or more namespace,c lass, struct, enum, interface and delegate.

it has scope only inside namespace which has global scope.

  1. namespace MyNamespace
  2. {
  3. }

prop: it created auto-implemented property inside a class or can initialize certain properties with some initial value.

  1. public int MyProperty { getset; }
propfull: it can create property declaration with get  and accessors and it has scope only inside a class or struct.
  1. private int myVar;
  2.     public int MyProperty
  3.     {
  4.         get { return myVar;}
  5.         set { myVar = value;}
  6.     }


It is a control statement which selects a switch section and break no succeeding section should be checked. each switch section contains one or more case labels followed by one or more statements depending on the scenario.

  1. switch (switch_on)
  2.         {
  3.             default:
  4.         }


create a try….catch block. the most important purpose of try … catch is to catch unhandled exceptions by trying a block of code and it successful it moved to the next section or move out of the method block and if not successful it go to the catch section where customized as well as other exception are thrown to identify the type of breakage caused by the try code.

  1. try
  2.        {
  3.        }
  4.        catch (Exception)
  5.        {
  6.            throw;
  7.        }
tryf: the basic purpose of using finally with try block is to cleanup the resources which is occupied by try block,
  1. try
  2.         {
  3.         }
  4.         finally
  5.         {
  6.         }

It executes block of statements until the expression is not set to false. The executing statement can also be terminated by adding break, go to like statements. It has scope inside a  method, indexer, property or event accessor.
  1. while (true)
  2.        {
  3.        }
That’s all about some of the useful code snippets but there are some others; you can check full code snippets  manager for full list.

Convert HTML String To PDF Via iTextSharp Library And Send As An Email Attachment

In this article we will see how we can convert string of data to PDF and then send email with attached copy of generated PDF.
Firstly, we can convert the string of data to PDF by using Popular Library for rendering PDF is ItextSharp. Secondly, we can attach the converted PDF file to email and send to the recipient by using built in C# Mail messages Class.
So, lets start to  build our first step,
Step 1: Convert  HTML String to PDF,
In this step we will first create button which will do the rest of work on Click event.
Let’s create the button to perform the required operation.
  1. <asp:Button ID=“btn_PDFEmail” runat=“server” Text=“Convert HTML to PDF and Send Email with Attachment” OnClick=“btn_PDFEmail_Click” />

The UI view looks like the following:

So our front end is all set and we need to apply the cs logic to perform operation.
Let’s start building HTML string.
  1. StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
  2.                    sb.Append(“<header class=’clearfix’>”);
  3.                    sb.Append(“<h1>INVOICE</h1>”);
  4.                    sb.Append(


  5.                    sb.Append(
    Company Name


  6.                    sb.Append(
    455 John Tower,
    AZ 85004, US


  7.                    sb.Append(
    (602) 519-0450


  8.                    sb.Append(


  9.                    sb.Append(“</div>”);
  10.                    sb.Append(


  11.                    sb.Append(
    PROJECT Website development


  12.                    sb.Append(
    CLIENT John Doe


  13.                    sb.Append(
    ADDRESS 796 Silver Harbour, TX 79273, US


  14.                    sb.Append(


  15.                    sb.Append(
    DATE April 13, 2016


  16.                    sb.Append(
    DUE DATE May 13, 2016


  17.                    sb.Append(“</div>”);
  18.                    sb.Append(“</header>”);
  19.                    sb.Append(“<main>”);
  20.                    sb.Append(“<table>”);
  21.                    sb.Append(“<thead>”);
  22.                    sb.Append(“<tr>”);
  23.                    sb.Append(“<th class=’service’>SERVICE</th>”);
  24.                    sb.Append(“<th class=’desc’>DESCRIPTION</th>”);
  25.                    sb.Append(“<th>PRICE</th>”);
  26.                    sb.Append(“<th>QTY</th>”);
  27.                    sb.Append(“<th>TOTAL</th>”);
  28.                    sb.Append(“</tr>”);
  29.                    sb.Append(“</thead>”);
  30.                    sb.Append(“<tbody>”);
  31.                    sb.Append(“<tr>”);
  32.                    sb.Append(“<td class=’service’>Design</td>”);
  33.                    sb.Append(“<td class=’desc’>Creating a recognizable design solution based on the company’s existing visual identity</td>”);
  34.                    sb.Append(“<td class=’unit’>$400.00</td>”);
  35.                    sb.Append(“<td class=’qty’>2</td>”);
  36.                    sb.Append(“<td class=’total’>$800.00</td>”);
  37.                    sb.Append(“</tr>”);
  38.                    sb.Append(“<tr>”);
  39.                    sb.Append(“<td colspan=’4′>SUBTOTAL</td>”);
  40.                    sb.Append(“<td class=’total’>$800.00</td>”);
  41.                    sb.Append(“</tr>”);
  42.                    sb.Append(“<tr>”);
  43.                    sb.Append(“<td colspan=’4′>TAX 25%</td>”);
  44.                    sb.Append(“<td class=’total’>$200.00</td>”);
  45.                    sb.Append(“</tr>”);
  46.                    sb.Append(“<tr>”);
  47.                    sb.Append(“<td colspan=’4′ class=’grand total’>GRAND TOTAL</td>”);
  48.                    sb.Append(“<td class=’grand total’>$1,000.00</td>”);
  49.                    sb.Append(“</tr>”);
  50.                    sb.Append(“</tbody>”);
  51.                    sb.Append(“</table>”);
  52.                    sb.Append(


  53.                    sb.Append(


  54.                    sb.Append(
    A finance charge of 1.5% will be made on unpaid balances after 30 days.


  55.                    sb.Append(“</div>”);
  56.                    sb.Append(“</main>”);
  57.                    sb.Append(“<footer>”);
  58.                    sb.Append(“Invoice was created on a computer and is valid without the signature and seal.”);
  59.                    sb.Append(“</footer>”);

I am using StringBuilder class for generating HTML string and pass to the parser for generating PDF. Before proceeding further add the following references.

  1. using iTextSharp.text;
  2. using iTextSharp.text.html.simpleparser;
  3. using iTextSharp.text.pdf;
  4. using System.Configuration;
  5. using System.IO;
  6. using System.Linq;
  7. using System.Net;
  8. using System.Net.Mail;
  9. using System.Text;
  10. using System.Web;
Now let’s write the code for generating in-memory PDF from HTML string.
  1. StringReader sr = new StringReader(sb.ToString());
  2.                    Document pdfDoc = new Document(PageSize.A4, 10f, 10f, 10f, 0f);
  3.                    HTMLWorker htmlparser = new HTMLWorker(pdfDoc);
  4.                    using (MemoryStream memoryStream = new MemoryStream())
  5.                    {
  6.                        PdfWriter writer = PdfWriter.GetInstance(pdfDoc, memoryStream);
  7.                        pdfDoc.Open();
  8.                        htmlparser.Parse(sr);
  9.                        pdfDoc.Close();
  10.                        byte[] bytes = memoryStream.ToArray();
  11.                        memoryStream.Close();
  12.                    }

Now let’s understand the Line of code. After building the string we can read from the string as we have passed the generated string.

  1. StringReader sr = new StringReader(sb.ToString());
We are building the PDF document with default page size of A4 Page size.
  1. Document pdfDoc = new Document(PageSize.A4, 10f, 10f, 10f, 0f);

Parse the HTML string using HTMLWorker of Itextsharp library,

  1. HTMLWorker htmlparser = new HTMLWorker(pdfDoc);

Use the memory stream to reside the file in-memory.

  1. using (MemoryStream memoryStream = new MemoryStream())
  2.                     {
  3. }
Now we get the PDF and memory stream to create the instance and write the document. Then first open the document, parse by the html worker and then after completing the work close the document (dispose off the resources) managing the resource properly.
  1. PdfWriter writer = PdfWriter.GetInstance(pdfDoc, memoryStream);
  2.                        pdfDoc.Open();
  3.                        htmlparser.Parse(sr);
  4.                        pdfDoc.Close();

Now we add the created document to the memory stream and use the bytes of it as a in-memory reference to later attach to the email.

  1. byte[] bytes = memoryStream.ToArray();
  2.                memoryStream.Close();

This is all about first step which will generate the PDF file and we will later use this as an attachment.

First Output
Now let’s proceed to the second step:
Step 2:

Email the Generated PDF File as an attachment. We will now use the Mail Message class to send email with in-memory generated PDF File.
  1. // From web.config
  2. string fromEmail = ConfigurationManager.AppSettings[“fromEmail”].ToString();            
  3.                         MailMessage mm = new MailMessage();
  4.                         mm.To.Add(“recipientaddress”);
  5.                         mm.From = new MailAddress(fromEmail);
  6.                         mm.Subject = “Online Request”;
  7.                         mm.Body = “Thanks for your time, Please find the attached invoice”;
  8.                         mm.Attachments.Add(new Attachment(new MemoryStream(bytes), “Invoice.pdf”));
  9.                         mm.IsBodyHtml = true;
  10.                         SmtpClient smtp = new SmtpClient();
  11.                         smtp.Host = ConfigurationManager.AppSettings[“SmtpServer”].ToString();
  12.                         smtp.EnableSsl = false;
  13.                         NetworkCredential NetworkCred = new NetworkCredential();
  14.                         NetworkCred.UserName = “”;
  15.                         NetworkCred.Password = “email_password”;
  16.                         smtp.UseDefaultCredentials = true;
  17.                         smtp.Credentials = NetworkCred;
  18.                         smtp.Port = 25;
  19.                         smtp.Send(mm);
You can use any email you receive from id by just authorizing the account i.e providing the network credentials. I have also use some application settings from web.config file and use here to get from there.
  1. <configuration>
  2.   <appSettings>
  3.       <add key=“fromEmail” value=“”/>
  4.     <add key=“SmtpServer” value=“”/>
  5.   </appSettings>
  6. </configuration>

Final Output


Introduction to HTTP Status Response Codes

Before going into the detailed description of each status codes we need to understand some definitions which are necessary to fully understand the terms used in this context.

What is Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)?

HTTP is a stateless protocol means  (the request which client generated must have some response from server and no data reside on server while processing both). Http Follow client-server approach as client send request from browser and in return server response. For every request you send to server you have to wait for response that browser shows in the form or HTML.

HTTP consist of Headers, Cookies, DNS Prefetching, Response Codes, Request Methods and Access Authentication.

We Will discuss in detail about the main backbones of HTTP Request-Response Model.

There are several versions of HTTP, but currently HTTP 1.1 is in use.

Hope you understand the basics of HTTP, Now Let’s start with the key area of HTTP Request – Response Model which is Http Response Codes.

HTTP Response Codes

These provide information about certain HTTP Requests either they are completed or not.

These are 3 digit codes.

These are grouped in to five major categories enlisted below:

Status Code Group Status Info Status Description
1xx Informational Continue and processing.
2xx Success Response Successful, no action required, Ok Status
3xx Redirection Need more action to fulfill the request.
4xx Client Error The Request contains unknown syntax and server did not fulfill the request.
5xx Server Error The Server failed to fulfill the valid request.

List of Common HTTP Status Response Codes

  • 200 OK
  • 300 Multiple Choices
  • 301 Moved Permanently
  • 302 Found
  • 304 Not Modified
  • 307 Temporary Redirect
  • 400 Bad Request
  • 401 Unauthorized
  • 403 Forbidden
  • 404 Not Found
  • 410 Gone
  • 500 Internal Server Error
  • 501 Not Implemented
  • 503 Service Unavailable
  • 550 Permission denied

Code and Description of Other Response Codes

1xx Informational Responses

HTTP status codes in the 1xx are typically informational.

  • 100 Continue
  • 101 Switching Protocols
  • 102 Processing
  • 103 Checkpoint
  • 122 Request-URI too long
2xx Successful Responses

Status codes in the 2xx range indicate that the transaction was received, understood, accepted and processed successfully.

  • 200 OK
  • 201 Created
  • 202 Accepted
  • 203 Non-Authoritative Information (since HTTP/1.1)
  • 204 No Content
  • 205 Reset Content
  • 206 Partial Content
  • 207 Multi-Status (WebDAV) (RFC 4918)
  • 226 IM Used (RFC 3229)
3xx Redirection Responses

HTTP status codes in the 3xx range pertain to redirection. The client must take additional action to complete the request.

  • 300 Multiple Choices
  • 301 Moved Permanently
  • 302 Found
  • 303 See Other (since HTTP/1.1)
  • 304 Not Modified
  • 305 Use Proxy (since HTTP/1.1)
  • 306 Switch Proxy
  • 307 Temporary Redirect (since HTTP/1.1)
  • 308 Resume Incomplete
4xx Client Error

HTTP status codes in the 4xx range indicate that a problem occurred with the request.

  • 400 Bad Request
  • 401 Unauthorized
  • 402 Payment Required
  • 403 Forbidden
  • 404 Not Found
  • 405 Method Not Allowed
  • 406 Not Acceptable
  • 407 Proxy Authentication Required
  • 408 Request Timeout
  • 409 Conflict
  • 410 Gone
  • 411 Length Required
  • 412 Precondition Failed
  • 413 Request Entity Too Large
  • 414 Request-URI Too Long
  • 415 Unsupported Media Type
  • 416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable
  • 417 Expectation Failed
  • 418 I’m a teapot (RFC 2324)
  • 422 Unprocessable Entity (WebDAV) (RFC 4918)
  • 423 Locked (WebDAV) (RFC 4918)
  • 424 Failed Dependency (WebDAV) (RFC 4918)
  • 425 Unordered Collection (RFC 3648)
  • 426 Upgrade Required (RFC 2817)
  • 428 Precondition Required
  • 429 Too Many Requests
  • 431 Request Header Fields Too Large
  • 444 No Response
  • 449 Retry With
  • 450 Blocked by Windows Parental Controls
  • 499 Client Closed Request
5xx Server Error

Error codes in the 5xx range indicate that server is aware that it has encountered an error or is otherwise incapable of performing the request.

  • 500 Internal Server Error
  • 501 Not Implemented
  • 502 Bad Gateway
  • 503 Service Unavailable
  • 504 Gateway Timeout
  • 505 HTTP Version Not Supported
  • 506 Variant Also Negotiates (RFC 2295)
  • 507 Insufficient Storage (WebDAV) (RFC 4918)
  • 509 Bandwidth Limit Exceeded (Apache bw/limited extension)
  • 510 Not Extended (RFC 2774)
  • 511 Network Authentication Required
  • 598 (Informal convention) network read timeout error
  • 599 (Informal convention) network connect timeout error


Best Ever Performance And Debugging Tools In Visual Studio 2015

The performance of the application is of utmost importance and this going to be very important from the perspective of client which they are facing if you have performance leaks in your application. To identify the performance leak prior to the Production environment is not an easy task but the new emerging power of VS 2015 Diagnostic Tools windows made it easier for us to have a deep performance analysis before it go live.

Instead of running a full profiling tool, you might take one or more of the following steps.

Insert code into an app (such as System.Diagnostics.Stop­watch) to measure how long it takes to run between various points, iteratively adding stopwatches as needed to narrow down the hot path.

Step through the code to see if any particular step “feels slow.”

These practices are typically not accurate, not a good use of time or both. That’s why there are now performance tools in the debugger. They will help you understand your apps performance during normal debugging.

Why not try this new and improved way to diagnose.

Diagnostic Tools Window

The primary difference you’ll notice when debugging code in Visual Studio 2015 is the new Diagnostic Tools window that will appear, firstly go to Debug and Click on Menu Item Show Diagnostic Tools, as in the following Figure 1.

Figure 1: How to open Diagnostic tools Window in Visual Studio 2015

These Diagnostic Tools present information in two complementary ways. They add graphs to the timeline in the upper-half of the window, and provide detailed information in the tabs on the bottom as in the following Figure 2.

Figure 2: the New Diagnostic Tools Window in Visual Studio 2015

  • Debugger Events (with IntelliTrace) gives you access to all Break, Output, and IntelliTrace events collected during your debugging session. The data is presented both as a timeline and as a tabular view. The two views are synchronized and can interact with each other.
  • The Memory Usage tool allows you to monitor the memory usage of your app while you are debugging. You can also take and compare detailed snapshots of native and managed memory to analyze the cause of memory growth and memory leaks.
  • The CPU Usage tool allows you to monitor the CPU usage of your application while you are debugging.

New IntelliTrace UI and experience:

  • Record specific events.
  • Examine related code, data that appears in the Locals window during debugger events, and function call information.
  • Debug errors that are hard to reproduce or that happen in deployment.

Why debug with IntelliTrace

  • An exception happens.

Figure 3: PerfTips

There is also a new option to show the CPU consumption time with PerfTips by clicking on that checkbox.


In Visual Studio 2015, you’ll see three tools in the Diagnostics Tools window: Debugger (includes IntelliTrace), Memory Usage and CPU Usage.

You can enable or disable the CPU Usage and Memory Usage tools by clicking on the Select Tools dropdown as in the following image:

The Debugger tool has three tracks that show Break Events, Output Events and IntelliTrace Events.

Figure 4: Digonostic Tools

This feature is used to trace the root cause of Bug/Error fastly and reliably by using events like clicking, post click changes and lots of trace information. This rich tool has lot of information about your running events.

You can spend less time debugging your application when you use IntelliTrace to record and trace your code’s execution history. You can find bugs easily because IntelliTrace lets you.

Note: You can use IntelliTrace in Visual Studio Enterprise edition (but not the Professional or Community editions).

IntelliTrace enhances the debugging experience and saves you valuable debugging time! It does that by capturing additional events with useful information about your programs execution, allowing you to identify potential root causes with fewer debugging iterations. The data it collects appear as events in the IntelliTrace track and in the table in the Events details tab.

In the Enterprise edition of Visual Studio 2015, you will see that we have completely revamped the user interface of IntelliTrace by bringing it into the Diagnostic Tools window. IntelliTrace vastly enhances the debugger by automatically capturing interesting events in your application and surfacing them in the Events graph and the Events tab as in the following image:

Figure 5: Event

UIcon in the graph area of events are the interesting events that are captured while debugging.

By mouse hovering it give detail information in the tooltip and by double clicking to the event it points to the event in Events Tab.

Traditional or live debugging shows only your application’s current state, with limited data about past events. You either have to infer these events based on the applications current state, or you have to recreate these events by rerunning your application.

IntelliTrace expands this traditional debugging experience by recording specific events and data at these points of time. This lets you see what happened in your application without restarting it, especially if you step past where the bug is. IntelliTrace is turned on by default during traditional debugging and collects data automatically and invisibly. This lets you switch easily between traditional debugging and IntelliTrace debugging to see the recorded information. See IntelliTrace Features and what data does IntelliTrace collect?

IntelliTrace can also help you debug errors that are hard to reproduce or that happen in deployment. You can collect IntelliTrace data and save it to an IntelliTrace log file (.iTrace file). An .iTrace file contains details about exceptions, performance events, web requests, test data, threads, modules, and other system information. You can open this file in Visual Studio Enterprise, select an item, and start debugging with IntelliTrace. This lets you go to any event in the file and see specific details about your application at that point in time.

These events made easier to capture where the bug happens as it give full stack tracing in historical debugging section as in the following:


Without IntelliTrace, you get a message about an exception but you don’t have much information about the events that led to the exception. You can examine the call stack to see the chain of calls that led to the exception, but you can’t see the sequence of events that happened during those calls. With IntelliTrace, you can examine the events that happened before the exception.

Videos Link

PerfTips (performance information in tooltips) is a new feature introduced in Visual Studio 2015 through which you can calculate time between the breakpoint hit points to the last point or while you step into the code.

It give you tips while you debug through code of the elapsed time as in the following image and on hovering over the mouse it gives detailed analysis and the value it estimate also contain debug overhead.

By clicking the elapsed time it can open the diagnostic tools window and show the current event with process memory and CPU utilization if selected.

Beside the elapsed time information if you want to show the CPU utilization this can be set through right clicking the elapsed time link.

When we right-click on that time it’ll show the PerfTips options to configure that.

The default value of showing elapsed time are in milliseconds.

Figure 6: Performance Tools


PerfTips Video

Best Optimization Techniques

The Performance of the application is of utmost importance and it has a direct impact on client if the performance of application is not appropriate then it takes lot of time for your client to just browse your website.

If you want your client stick on your content and feel better response of client then try to search for best performance booster metrics to be set for your need so that client never put up.

Today i am going to write the best ever performance and optimization rules that can boost your website / application performance to many folds.

so lets start the best performance and optimization techniques.

Compress Static Content:

As every website contains lot of images,style  sheet and JavaScript files existing in many folds of directories and they load every time with loading content of page so the best approach is to compress the static content which increased the performance by reducing the bandwidth of requests.

In Web.config

        <urlcompression dostaticcompression="true"></urlcompression>

You can perform this procedure by using the user interface (UI), by running Appcmd.exe commands in a command-line window, by editing configuration files directly, or by writing WMI scripts.

  1. Open IIS Manager and navigate to the level you want to manage. For information about opening IIS Manager, see Open IIS Manager (IIS 7). For information about navigating to locations in the UI, see Navigation in IIS Manager (IIS 7).
  2. In Features View, double-click Compression.
  3. On the Compression page, select the box next to Enable static content compression.
  4. Click Apply in the Actions pane.

For best need according to your need if you are running application via windows server or any windows you can use this reference for your need.